爱德基金会

环球计划新版初稿主要修订内容

发布时间 | 2018-06-01    来源 | 爱德国际办公室


手册的整体结构基本保持不变。人道主义宪章作为环球计划的道德和法律基石,没有作任何改动。

The overall Handbook structure remains largely the same. The Humanitarian Charter, Sphere’s fundamental moral and legal cornerstone, does not change.  

 

新版手册的重点仍然是为人道主义响应制订最低标准。但是,这些标准需要怎样才能对备灾、减灾、气候变化的适应、以及提高抗灾能力和恢复力有用,还需要您的积极反思。

The focus remains on producing minimum standards for humanitarian response. You are however invited to reflect on what these standards would need in order to make them useful for preparation, disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation, resilience and recovery.  

 

新版初稿也包含了一些重要的变化:

Draft 1 also incorporates a few important changes:  

 

1. 版面:现在每条标准都用一个表格形式来呈现

考虑制订产出指标(产出指标尚未出台,欢迎提出建议)。为了鼓励标准的处境化应用,指标体系避免使用具体的数字。这些都包含在每一条指标旁边的“范围”栏内,同栏还有帮助处境化应用的其它方法。“范围”部分还有空白,欢迎提出建议。

• Presentation: Each standard is now presented in table format.  

Outcome indicators are considered (we welcome suggestions for outcome indicators where they are still missing). Key actions remain. To encourage the contextualisation of the standards, the indicators avoid stating specific numbers. These are included in “threshold” sections next to each indicator, along with other ways to help contextualise indicators. We welcome suggestions for thresholds where they are still missing.  

 

2. 介绍:介绍章节(现行版之“什么是环球计划?”)做了大幅度扩充。

本章讨论了手册的不同章节、响应方式、响应环境(持久危机、军民协调、城市与营地等等),跨部门协调(政府、部队等等),与现金有关的具体事项以及对跨领域主题的详细介绍。

• Introduction: The introductory chapter (currently “What is Sphere?”) has been considerably expanded.

It discusses the various Handbook sections, different response modalities, various response settings (protracted crises, civil-military coordination, urban vs. camp-based, etc.), coordinating with different actors (government, military, etc.), various cash-specific considerations and a detailed introduction to the cross-cutting themes.

 

3. 核心人道主义标准(CHS): 核心人道主义标准替换了环球计划核心标准。

该标准为使用环球计划技术标准提供了一个总体框架,重点在于人道主义工作的质量、责信和过程。核心人道主义标准的九条承诺不变,但与之相关的绩效指标、问题提纲和指引则开放接受评论和修订。

• Core Humanitarian Standard (CHS): The CHS replaces the Sphere Core Standards.

It provides the overall framework for working with the Sphere technical standards, focusing on quality, accountability and processes of humanitarian work. While the CHS Nine commitments remain unchanged, its performance indicators, guiding questions and guidance notes are open for review and revision.  

 

4. 保护原则:四条保护原则在内容上发生了较大转移,对概念和活动的定义更加清晰,跟红十字国际委员会保护工作专业标准的联系也更加紧密。

• Protection Principles: The four Protection Principles have undergone some shifts in content and now feature clearer delimitations of concepts and activities. There is also a stronger link to the ICRC Professional Standards for Protection Work.  

 

5. 供水、环境卫生与卫生促进(WASH):总体结构不变,所有章节都有更新。

新加了两个小节:

• “WASH和营养”标准,重点是需要用充足的供水、环境卫生与卫生促进服务来预防和克服营养不良。

• “WASH和健康”下面的两条标准,从本质上是吸收了2014年西非埃博拉病毒大爆发的教训。

• Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion (WASH): The overall structure remains the same and all sections have been updated.

Two new sections have been added:  

² A “WASH and Nutrition” standard focuses on the need for adequate WASH services to prevent and fight undernutrition.

² Two standards under “WASH and Health” essentially address some of the learning from the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa.  

 

6. 营养与粮食保障:所有章节都有更新。

“粮食保障-食物发放”改称为“粮食保障-食品援助”。

“供应链管理”标准从本章删除,更新后将应用于所有技术环节。这一部分将成为手册的附件,强调其普便适用性。

“现金与代用券”标准不复存在——这一标准被融入到本章的总体导言和全书中,使得现金和代用券跟各个部分都相关。

• Nutrition and Food Security: All sections have been updated.  

² The section “Food Security – Food Transfers” has been re-named “Food Security – Food Assistance”.  

² The “Supply Chain Management” standard has been taken out of this chapter and will be updated to address all technical sectors. It will be an annex to the Handbook to underline its overall applicability.

² The “Cash and Vouchers” standard no longer exists as such – it has been absorbed into the general guidance of this chapter and throughout the Handbook, in an attempt to make Cash and Vouchers relevant for all sectors.  

 

7. 住所、安置及家居用品(住所、安置及非粮食物品):所有章节都有更新,某些标准重新措辞。

“房屋、土地和财产权(HLP)”的重要程度提高了。对现行版行动与指引部分的文字进行了编辑,并进一步开发成为房屋、土地和财产权标准,体现其在人道主义援助中的重要性。

现行版中原来的非粮食物品(NFI)标准结构有所调整,新的行文重点转向家居用品及其及时发放。当然,所有的非粮食物品在相应章节中都有所涵盖(比如清洁用品已经包括在“供水、环境卫生与卫生促进”章节)

 

• Shelter, Settlement and Household Items (formerly Shelter, Settlement and Non-Food Items): All sections have been updated and some of the standards re-worded.

o More importance is given to “Housing, Land and Property rights” (HLP). Wording has been compiled from the current actions and guidance notes and further developed into an HLP standard, reflecting its importance in humanitarian response.  

o The two former NFI standards have been re-structured and written to focus on household items and the timely delivery thereof, while it is understood that all NFIs are addressed in the respective chapters (for example hygiene items in WASH).

 

8. 卫生行动:所有章节都有所更新。需要注意的是“基本卫生服务”中的三点改动:

• “性健康和生殖健康”的内容进一步开发,以反映日趋发展的实际情况。这一部分的标准数量从两个增加到四个。

• 根据近几年来反复出现的需求和目前在指引方面的空白,新增了一条“姑息治疗”标准。

• 总的来说,作者们希望指引更加适应环境背景,从而在将来发生危机和疫病爆发(例如埃博拉)的时候能够更好地应对。

• Health Action: All sections were updated. Three changes in the “Essential Health Services” section should be noted:

² The “Sexual and reproductive health” content was further developed to reflect growing evidence. The number of standards for this section went from two to four.   

² A new standard on “Palliative Care” was added in response to repeated demand over the past few years and the current lack of available guidance.  

² Overall, the authors attempted to make the guidance more adaptable to context, so that future crises and epidemic outbreaks (such as Ebola) can be better addressed.  

 

(本文内容由环球计划在第四版修订初稿审议时发布,由爱德基金会翻译分享。)